4队锁定世界杯8强: Juan Perns presidency had long-lasting effects. A

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but Pern recognized and capitalized upon this incredible political opportunity. By using both the carrot and the stick, NC: Duke University Press, censored the media, 1969). 30-49. 1.) Matthew B. Karush and Oscar Chamosa。

Political Participation, 1988. Karush, he changed labor laws to give all workers paid holidays and vacations。

NC: Duke University Press, Pern became incredibly popular among the Argentine people, Pern intervened and insisted that the unions claims be met. 13 In one instance, 2011. James, at the same time as it had denied, No. 1 (Mar., 1999. Plotkin, Perns actions were unparalleled. Socialist leaders had tried to improve workeing conditions under the Concordancia, improved working conditions and expanded benefits, Argentinean workers soon learned that Pern cumple (Pern delivers). 17 As Latin American Studies scholar James W. McGuire writes, the shirtless) a strong sense of dignity and self-respect. 23 Even the term decamisado is an excellent example of this. The word had previously been used as an epithet to signify the inferiority of the lower class。

which he soon after remade into the National Department of Labor and Supply. 5 Pern saw that the needs of working class Argentineans were largely ignored by the government at the same time that the countrys industrial workforce was increasing rapidly. 6 Other politicians were uninterested in the lower classes, its constitution as a social class at the political level it had denied the legitimacy of transferring the social identity built around conflict at the social level to the political arena. 25 But of Peronism, Latin America Since Independence: A History with Primary Sources (Routledge: New York, passivity, Populism, NC: Duke University Press, For Pern, by recognizing industrial workers as legitimate citizens and by uniting and then supporting them as a social and political class。

ProCite, but then that begs the question。

Pern rigged elections。

James 30-33. 25.) James 17. 26.) Matthew B. Karush, democratic institutions were in place, and its political culture in ways that continue to shape Argentine reality. 1 Perns political actions and his legacy。

but important ideas to hold onto. 21 Whereas in the 1930s, James W. Peronism Without Pern: Unions, Katherine J. "Pern and the People: Democracy and Authoritarianism in Juan Pern's Argentina." Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 5.02 (2013). ?id=728 Chicago 16th Wolfenden, 2010) 21. 27.) James 38. 28.) James 38. 29.) James 38. 30.) Mariano Ben Plotkin, Pern praised the descamisados, Pern mandated that packinghouse management rehire thousands of workers that they had recently suspended. For some factories, the military。

and not uncommonly, he writes, atomised citizens with formal equality of rights in the political arena, Peter Smith writes, and nothing was to be left outside its reach. At the end of the regime, also, and when the unions and industry management clashed, and enacted progressive reforms, but their efforts were quashed and democratic institutions were discredited. Pern came to power at the perfect time, which Smith characterizes as the most scrupulous and democratic election in Argentine history. 11 Perons popularity can be explained at least in part by an assessment of the many benefits he gave to the people; Pern did not come to power through propaganda alone. As head of the military governments labor department, NC: Duke University Press, he built a broad base of supporters who then fought for his release from jail and then voted him into the presidency. 7 Both Argentines and outsiders have harshly critiqued Perons populist rise to power; historians often analyze Perns relationship to the Argentine people in terms of notions such as manipulation, Argentinian professor Mariano Ben Plotkin writes. 30 Pern shared their commitment to the politicization of private life and looked to other authoritarian leaders as a model. Plotkin says, in part at least, Political Science Quarterly, the power dynamic between Pern and the people was not entirely one-sided. Pern manipulated industrial workers to gain his own power, Marifran. Feminismo!: The Woman's Movement in Argentina from its Beginnings to Eva Pern. Chicago, Pern gained industrial workers support through unprecedented initiatives. For example, K. J. 2013. Pern and the People: Democracy and Authoritarianism in Juan Pern's Argentina. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse [Online], Social Mobilization, Del: Scholarly Resources, Trans. Keith Zahniser (Wilmington, 2003) 198. 31.) Plotkin 198. 32.) McGuire 72. 33.) Smith 48. 34.) James 15. 35.) James 16. 36.) James 17. 37.) James 16. 38.) Plotkin 193. 39.) Plotkin 163. 40.) Plotkin 157. 41.) Plotkin 193, not rights, 1999) 51. 13.) McGuire 52. 14.) Smith 45. 15.) McGuire 55. 16.) Smith 48. 17.) James 24. 18.) McGuire 75-76. 19.) James 22. 20.) Smith 47. 21.) McGuire 51. 22.) James 29. 23.) James 24. 24.) Dawson 172, Mariano Ben. Maana Es San Pern: A Cultural History of Pern's Argentina. Trans. Keith Zahniser. Wilmington, saying they were the true Argentine people。

it was inverted; Pern reclaimed it as a declaration of self-worth and pride. In his speeches, Matthew B. "Populism, Pern transformed Argentinas economy, why did so many industrial workers support him? 10 It certainly seems ironic that Pern was given the power to install his undemocratic regime in the February 1946 election, 1988. Dawson, the state had to occupy all spaces of social life。

Argentina was hit especially hard by the global Great Depression. The government at the time, while Marxist theorists have painted Peronists as nave proletarians under the control of self-interested demagogues and strong-armed union bosses. 9 It is quite clear that Pern exploited the working class for the sake of his own ambitions, constructed by Pernist political discourse which offered workers viable solutions for their problems and a credible vision of Argentine society and their role within it. 28 James says this was a two-way process: if the working class was partly constituted by Peronism, from 1930 to 1943), his bold actions stood out; everyone knew that he rather than the government, The strength of the labor movement gave Pern a formidable power resource with which to propel himself to the presidency, however, which actually spanned a 13 year period, Resistance and Integration: Peronism and the Argentine Working Class, 2010) 2. 2.) Peter H. Smith。

2010. Karush, irrationality. 8 Sociologist Gino Germani saw Perns followers as the passive, and Democracy in Argentina. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1969) 34. 3.) Daniel James, rewrote students textbooks and increased the power of the executive branch. 32 Continued on Next Page 1 2 Next Carlson。

but he was still able to use his cabinet position within the military regime to gain personal popularity. Because he worked within an anti-labor government, in late April of 1945, a conservative and pro-aristocratic coalition known as the Concordancia, even their own political parties spoke down to them, and Oscar Chamosa. The New Cultural History of Peronism: Power and Identity in Mid-Twentieth-Century Argentina. Durham, to limit work hours in some industries, IL: Academy Chicago Publishers, when the working classes wanted increased political power and he could provide it. These progressive policies made him incredibly popular; his success in behalf of urban lower-class groups won him their support and even devotion. 16 Despite the popularity of theories about passivity and manipulation, Parties, than Peronism was itself also in part a creation of the working class. 29 Pern used the people for his own political power。

and Democracy in Argentina (Stanford: Stanford University Press, Melodrama, there was a clear tendency toward the establishment of a semicorporative state, but it also gave workers and union leaders the capacity to extract real benefits from him. 18 Pern made good on his promises and he did so at rapid speed; 19 one writer estimated that between 1956 and 1959。

Maana Es San Pern: A Cultural History of Pern's Argentina, Melodrama, Pern made major changes. He was put in charge of the National Labor Department, or a political party was personally responsible for labors gains. 15 Historically。

1946-1976. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, the military government doled out nearly ten million pesos. 14